J. Michael Bishop

John Michael Bishop is an American Nobel Prize-winning immunologist and microbiologist. In 1989 Bishop shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine with Harold E. Varmus for their research on oncogenes. Bishop and Varmus discovered that common genes, proto-oncogenes can become modified and turn into oncogenes, cancer-producing genes.


Bishop earned a chemistry degree at Gettysburg College in 1987, and continued his studies at Harvard Medical School, but since he was uncertain about wanting to practice medicine, he spent a year working in the pathology department of the Massachusetts General Hospital where he developed his interest in molecular biology. He spent his senior year at Harvard in the research laboratory, where he began his research in molecular biology. Bishop’s most important work took place at the University of California at San Francisco, where his research with Harold E. Varmus resulted in groundbreaking discoveries about the growth of cancer cells and treatment of many varieties of cancer.

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Biologist BIOLOGIST (Retroviral oncogenes)
J. Michael Bishop
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1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

2003 National Medal of Science

2008 Elected Foreign Member of the Royal Society

2011 Raymond and Beverly Sackler Award for Sustained National Leadership

Kim, S., Welm, A. L., and Bishop, J. M. A dominant mutant allele of the ING4 tumor suppressor found in human cancer cells exacerbates MYC-initiated mouse mammary tumorigenesis.  Cancer Research 70: 5155, 2010.

Woods, S., and Bishop, J. M.  A new transgenic mouse line for tetracycline inducible transgene expression in mature melanocytes and the melanocyte stem cells using the Dopachrome tautomerase promoter. Transgenic Research online 2010.

Yang, D. Liu, H., Goga, A., Kim, S., Yuneva, M., Bishop, J. M.  Therapeutic potential of a synthetic lethal interaction between the MYC proto-oncogene and inhibition of aurora-B kinase. PNAS 107: 13836, 2010.

Nair, R., Junankar, S., O’Toole, S., Shah, J., Borowsky, A. D., Bishop, J. M., and Swarbrick, A.  Redefining the expression and function of the inhibitor of differentiation 1 in mammary gland development.  PLoS One 5 (8): e11947, 2010.

Swarbrick, A., Roy, E., Allen, T., and Bishop, J. M. Id1 cooperates with oncogenic Ras to induce metastatic mammary carcinoma by subversion of the cellular senescence response.  PNAS 105: 5402, 2008.

Field, K. A., Charoenthongtrakul, S., Bishop, J. M., and Refaeli, Y. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas.  Molecular Cancer 7: 39, 2008.

Refaeli, Y., Young, R. M., Turner, B. C., Duda, J., Field, K. A., and Bishop, J. M.  The B-cell antigen receptor and over-expression of MYC can cooperate in the genesis of B-cell lymphomas. PLoS Biology 6:1208, 2008.

Goga, A., Yang, D., Tward, A., Morgan, D., and Bishop, J. M. Inhibition of Cdk1 as a potential therapy for tumors over-expressing MYC. NMED 13: 820, 2007.

Welm, A. L., Sneddon, J. B., Taylor, C., Nuyten, D. S. A., van de Vijver, M. J., Hasegawa, B. H., and Bishop, J. M. The macrophages-stimulating protein pathway promotes metastasis in a mouse model for breast cancer and predicts poor prognosis in humans. PNAS 104: 7570, 2007.

Tward, A. D., Jones, K. D., Yant, S., Cheung, S. T., Fan, S. T., Chen, X., Kay, M. A., Wang, R., and Bishop, J. M. Distinct pathways of genomic progression to benign and malignant tumors of the liver. PNAS 104: 14771, 2007.

Dubois, N. C., Hofmann, D., Kaloulis, K., Bishop, J. M., and Trumpp, A. Nestin-Cre Transgenic Mouse Line Nes-Cre1 Mediates Highly Efficient Cre/IoxP Mediated Recombination in the Nervous System, Kidney, and Somite-Derived Tissues. Genesis 44:355, 2006.

Refaeli, Y., Field, K. A., Turner, B.C., Trumpp, A., and Bishop, J. M. The Proto-oncogene MYC can break B-cell tolerance. PNAS 102: 4097, 2005.

Welm, A. L., Kim, S., Welm, B. E., and Bishop, J. M. MET and MYC cooperate in mammary tumorigenesis. PNAS 102: 4324, 2005.

Yang, D., Welm, A. and Bishop, J. M. Cell Division and Cell Survival in the Absence of Survivin. PNAS 101: 15100, 2004.

Yang, D., Goga, A., and Bishop, J. M. RNA Interference (RNAi) with Rnase III-Prepared siRNAs. Methods in Molecular Biology 252: 471, 2004.

Kim, S., Chin, K., Gray, J. W., and Bishop, J. M. A Screen for Genes that Suppress the Loss of Contact Inhibition Induced by MYCN: Identification of ING4 as a Candidate Tumor Suppressor Gene in Human Cancer. PNAS 101: 16251, 2004.

Padua, R. A., Larghero, J., Robin, M., le Pogam, C., Schlageter, M-H, Muszlak, S., Fric, J., West, R., Rousselot, P., Phan, T. H., Liesbeth, M., Teiserenc, H., Carpentier, A. F., Kogan, S., Degos, L., Pla, M., Bishop, J. M., Stevenson, F., Charron, D., and Chomienne, D. PML-RARA-targeted DNA vaccine induces protective immunity in a mouse model of leukemia. Nature Medicine 9: 1413, 2003.

Huang, Z., Traugh, J. A., and Bishop, J. M. Negative Control of the Myc Protein by the Stress-Responsive Kinase Pak2. Molecular and Cellular Biology 24: 1582, 2003.

Cheng, Y. and Bishop, J. M. Suppressor of Fused represses Gli-mediated transcription by recruiting the SAP18-mSin3 corepressor complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:5442, 2002.

Yang, D., Buccholz, F., Huang, Z.D., Goga, A., Chen, C.-Y., Brodsky, F. M., Bishop, J. M. Short RNA duplexes produced by hydrolysis with E. coli RNase III mediate effective RNA interference in vertebrate cells. PNAS 99: 9942, 2002.

Nybakken, K., Turck, C., Robbins, D.J., and Bishop, J.M. Hedgehog-stimulated Phosphorylation of the Kinesin-related Protein Costal2 Is Mediated by the Serine/Threonine Kinase Fused. Jour. Biol. Chem. 277: 24638-24647, 2002.

Buchholz, F., and Bishop, J.M. loxP directed cloning: Use of Cre recombinase as a universal restriction enzyme. Nature Biotechnology19:1047, 2001.

Cheng, Y. and Bishop, J. M. Suppressor of Fused represses Gli-mediated transcription by recruiting the SAP18-mSin3 corepressor complex. Current Biology, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:5442, 2001.

Hahn, M., and Bishop, J.M. Expression pattern of Drosophila ret suggests a common ancestral origin between the metamorphosis precursors in endoderm and the vertebrate enteric neurons. PNAS 98: 1053, 2001.

Kogan, S.C., Brown, D.E., Shultz, D.B., Truong, B-T H., Lallemand-Breitenbach, V., Guillemin, M.C., Lagasse, E., Weissman, I.L., and Bishop, J.M. BCL-2 cooperates with PMLRARa to block neutrophil differentiation and initiate acute leukemia. J. Exper. Med. 193:531, 2001.

Trumpp, A., Refaeli, Y., Oskarsson, T., Gasser, S., Murphy, M., Martin, G.R., and Bishop, J.M. c-Myc regulates mammalian body size by controlling cell number but not cell size. Nature 414:768, 2001.

Wang, R., Ferrell, L.D., Faouzi, S., Maher, J.J., and Bishop, J.M. Activation of the Met receptor by cell attachment induces and sustains hepatocellular carinomas in transgenic mice. J. Cell Biol., 153:1, 2001.

Buchholz, F., Refaeli, Y., Trumpp, A. and Bishop, J.M. Inducible chromosomal translocation of AML and ETO genes through Cre/loxP mediated recombination in the mouse. EMBO Reports. 1:1333, 2000.

Felsher, D., Zetterberg, A., Zhu, J., Tlsty, T., and Bishop, J.M. Over-expression of MYC causes p53-dependent G2 arrest of normal fibroblasts. PNAS 97:10544, 2000.

Kogan, S.C., Hong, S.H., Shultz, D.B., Privalsky, M.L., and Bishop, J.M. Leukemia initiated by PMLRARalpha: the PML domain plays a critical role while retinoic acid-mediated transactivation is dispensable. Blood 95:1541, 2000.

Weiss, W.A., Godfrey, T., Francisco, C., and Bishop, J.M. Genome-wide screen for allelic imbalance in a mouse model for neuroblastoma. Cancer Research 60:2483, 2000.

Bates, B., Rios, M., Trumpp, A., Chen, C., Fan, G., Bishop, J. M. and Jaenisch, R. Neurotrophin-3 is required for proper cerebellar development. Nature Neuroscience 2: 115, 1999.

Felsher, D. W. and Bishop, J. M. Transient excess of MYC activity can elicit genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 3940, 1999.

Felsher, D. W. and Bishop, J. M. Reversible tumorigenesis by MYC in hematopoietic lineages. Mol. Cell 4:199, 1999.

Kalman, D., Gomperts, S. N., Hardy, S., Kitamura, M. and Bishop, J. M. Ras family GTPases control astrocyte process growth. Mol. Biol. Cell, 10: 1665, 1999.

Kalman, D., Weiner, O., Goosney, D., Sedat, J., Finlay, B.B., Abo, A., and Bishop, J. M. Enteropathogenic E. coli acts through WASP and Arp2/3 complex to form actin pedestals. Nature Cell Biology 1:389, 1999.

Lallemand-Breitenbach, V., Guillemin, M. C., Janin, A., Daniel, M. T., Degos, L., Kogan, S., Bishop, J. M. and de The, H. Retinoic acid and arsenic synergize to eradicate leukemic cells in a mouse model of acute promyelocytic leukemia. J. Exp. Med. 189: 1043, 1999.

Smith-McCune, K., Kalman, D., Robbins, C., Shivakumar, S., Yuschenkoff, L. and Bishop, J. M. Intranuclear localization of human papillomavirus 16 E7 during transformation and preferential binding of E7 to the Rb family member p130. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:6999, 1999.

Trumpp, A., Depew, M.J., Rubenstein, J.L.R., Bishop, J.M., and Martin, G.R. Cre-mediated gene inactivation demonstrates that FGF8 is required for cell survival and patterning of the first branchial arch. Genes & Devel. 13:3136, 1999.

Zhu, J., Wang, H., Bishop, J. M. and Blackburn, E. H. Telomerase extends the lifespan of virus-transformed human cells without net telomere lengthening. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 3723, 1999.

Foster-Barber, A., and Bishop, J. M. Src interacts with dynamin and synapsin in neuronal cells. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 95, 4673-7, 1998.

Guo, Q., Xie, J., Dang, C. V., Liu, E. T., and Bishop, J. M. Identification of a large Myc-binding protein that contains RCC1-like repeats. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 95, 9172-7, 1998.

Katzen, A. L., Jackson, J., Harmon, B. P., Fung, S. M., Ramsay, G., and Bishop, J. M. Drosophila myb is required for the G2/M transition and maintenance of diploidy. Genes And Development 12, 831-43, 1998.

Kogan, S. C., Lagasse, E., Atwater, S., Bae, S. C., Weissman, I., Ito, Y., and Bishop, J. M. The PEBP2betaMYH11 fusion created by Inv(16)(p13;q22) in myeloid leukemia impairs neutrophil maturation and contributes to granulocytic dysplasia. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 95, 11863-8, 1998.

Zhu, J., Woods, D., McMahon, M., and Bishop, J. M. Senescence of human fibroblasts induced by oncogenic Raf. Genes And Development 12, 2997-3007, 1998.

Bishop, J. M. Cancer: what should be done? [editorial]. Science 278, 995, 1997.

Brown, D., Kogan, S., Lagasse, E., Weissman, I., Alcalay, M., Pelicci, P. G., Atwater, S., and Bishop, J. M. A PMLRARalpha transgene initiates murine acute promyelocytic leukemia. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 94, 2551-6, 1997.

Capobianco, A. J., Zagouras, P., Blaumueller, C. M., Artavanis-Tsakonas, S., and Bishop, J. M. Neoplastic transformation by truncated alleles of human NOTCH1/TAN1 and NOTCH2. Molecular And Cellular Biology 17, 6265-73, 1997.

Hogg, A., Schirm, S., Nakagoshi, H., Bartley, P., Ishii, S., Bishop, J. M., and Gonda, T. J. Inactivation of a c-Myb/estrogen receptor fusion protein in transformed primary cells leads to granulocyte/macrophage differentiation and down regulation of c-kit but not c-myc or cdc2. Oncogene 15, 2885-98, 1997.

Paulson, R., Jackson, J., Immergluck, K., and Bishop, J. M. The DFer gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes two membrane- associated proteins that can both transform vertebrate cells. Oncogene 14, 641-52, 1997.

Radany, E. H., Hong, K., Kesharvarzi, S., Lander, E. S., and Bishop, J. M. Mouse mammary tumor virus/v-Ha-ras transgene-induced mammary tumors exhibit strain-specific allelic loss on mouse chromosome 4. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 94, 8664-9, 1997.

Robbins, D. J., Nybakken, K. E., Kobayashi, R., Sisson, J. C., Bishop, J. M., and ThŽrond, P. P. Hedgehog elicits signal transduction by means of a large complex containing the kinesin-related protein costal2. Cell 90, 225-34, 1997.

Weiss, W. A., Aldape, K., Mohapatra, G., Feuerstein, B. G., and Bishop, J. M. Targeted expression of MYCN causes neuroblastoma in transgenic mice. Embo Journal 16, 2985-95, 1997.

Bishop, J. M. The discovery of proto-oncogenes. Faseb Journal 10, 362-4, 1996.

Katzen, A. L., and Bishop, J. M. myb provides an essential function during Drosophila development. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 93, 13955-60, 1996.

ThŽrond, P. P., Knight, J. D., Kornberg, T. B., and Bishop, J. M. Phosphorylation of the fused protein kinase in response to signaling from hedgehog. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 93, 4224-8, 1996.

Wang, R., Kobayashi, R., and Bishop, J. M. Cellular adherence elicits ligand-independent activation of the Met cell-surface receptor. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 93, 8425-30, 1996.

Bishop, J. M. Cancer: the rise of the genetic paradigm. Genes And Development 9, 1309-15, 1995.

Kudoh, J., Wang, Y., Minoshima, S., Hashimoto, T., Amagai, M., Nishikawa, T., Shtivelman, E., Bishop, J. M., and Shimizu, N. Localization of the human AHNAK/desmoyokin gene (AHNAK) to chromosome band 11q12 by somatic cell hybrid analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenetics And Cell Genetics 70, 218-20, 1995.

Robbins, S. M., Quintrell, N. A., and Bishop, J. M. Myristoylation and differential palmitoylation of the HCK protein- tyrosine kinases govern their attachment to membranes and association with caveolae. Molecular And Cellular Biology 15, 3507- 15, 1995.

Vetter, M. L., and Bishop, J. M. Beta PDGF receptor mutants defective for mitogenesis promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Current Biology 5, 168-78, 1995.

Bishop, J. M., Capobianco, A. J., Doyle, H. J., Finney, R. E., McMahon, M., Robbins, S. M., Samuels, M. L., and Vetter, M. Proto-oncogenes and plasticity in cell signaling. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia On Quantitative Biology 59, 165-71, 1994.

Dietrich, W. F., Radany, E. H., Smith, J. S., Bishop, J. M., Hanahan, D., and Lander, E. S. Genome-wide search for loss of heterozygosity in transgenic mouse tumors reveals candidate tumor suppressor genes on chromosomes 9 and 16. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America 91, 9451-5, 1994.

Bishop, J. M., Kirschner, M., and Varmus, H. Science and the new administration. Science 259, 444-5, 1993.

Doyle, H. J., and Bishop, J. M. Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase required for embryonic pattern formation, shares substrates with the sevenless and EGF-R pathways in Drosophila. Genes And Development 7, 633-46, 1993.

Finney, R. E., and Bishop, J. M. Predisposition to neoplastic transformation caused by gene replacement of H-ras1. Science 260, 1524-7, 1993.

Lang, R. A., and Bishop, J. M. Macrophages are required for cell death and tissue remodeling in the developing mouse eye. Cell 74, 453-62, 1993.

Samuels, M. L., Weber, M. J., Bishop, J. M., and McMahon, M. Conditional transformation of cells and rapid activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by an estradiol-dependent human raf-1 protein kinase. Molecular And Cellular Biology 13, 6241-52, 1993.

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    Chancellor of the University

    University of California, San Francisco


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