Roderick MacKinnon

Roderick MacKinnon studies the principles of electricity in biology through analysis of ion channel structure and function. In 2003 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry ‘for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

Roderick MacKinnon is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and won numerous scientific awards.

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Roderick MacKinnon
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1998 AAAS Newcomb Cleveland Prize

1999 Lasker Award 1999

2000 Alexander M. Cruickshank Award

2000 Lewis S. Rosenstiel Award

2001 Gairdner Foundation International Award

2003 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize 2003

2003 Nobel Prize for Chemistry 2003

1997 Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator

1985-86 National Institutes of Health Fellow

1. Butterwick JA, MacKinnon R   Solution Structure and Phospholipid Interactions of the Isolated Voltage-Sensor Domain from KvAP. PMID 20851706 PMCID 2971526   J MOL BIOL 2010 NOV 5;403(4):591-606
2. Yuan P, Leonetti MD, Pico AR, Hsiung YC, MacKinnon R   Structure of the Human BK Channel Ca2+-Activation Apparatus at 3.0 angstrom Resolution. PMID 20508092   SCIENCE 2010 JUL 9;329(5988):182-186
3. Tao X, Lee A, Limapichat W, Dougherty DA, MacKinnon R   A Gating Charge Transfer Center in Voltage Sensors. PMID 20360102   SCIENCE 2010 APR 2;328(5974):67-73
4. Feng LA, Campbell EB, Hsiung YC, MacKinnon R   Structure of a Eukaryotic CLC Transporter Defines an Intermediate State in the Transport Cycle. PMID 20929736   SCIENCE 2010 OCT 29;330(6004):635-641
5. lee SY , Banerjee A , MacKinnon R   Two separate interfaces between the voltage sensor and pore are rquired for the function of voltage-dependent K+ channels. PMID 19260762 PMCID PMC2650729   PLOS BIOL MAR 2009 7(3):676-686
6. Schmidt D , Cross SR , MacKinnon R   A Gating Model for the Archeal Voltage-Dependent K+ Channel KvAP in DPhPC and POPE:POPG Decane Lipid Bilayers. PMID 19481093 MIHMS 119991   J MOL BIOL 2009 JUL 31;390(5):902-912
7. Tao X , Avalos JL , Chen JY , MacKinnon R   Crystal Structure of the Eukaryotic Strong Inward-Rectifier K+ Channel Kir2.2 at 3.1 angstrom Resolution. PMID 20019282 PMCID 2819303   SCIENCE 2009 DEC 18;326(5960):1668-1674
8. Lee SY , Letts JA , MacKinnon R   Functional Reconstitution of Purified Human Hv1 H+ Channels. PMID 19233200 PMCID 2778278   J MOL BIOL 2009 APR 17;387(5):1055-1060
9. Endeward B , Butterwick JA , MacKinnon R , Prisner TF   Pulsed Electron-Electron Double-Resonance Determination of Spin- Label Distances and Orientations on the Tetrameric Potassium Ion Channel KcsA.   J AM CHEM SOC 2009 OCT 28;131(42):15246-15250
10. Schmidt D , MacKinnon R   Voltage-dependent K+ channel gating and voltage sensor toxin sensitivity depend on the mechanical state of the lipid membrane. PMID 19050073 PMCID PMC2614752   PROC NAT ACAD SCI USA 2008 DEC 9;105(49):19276-19281
11. Lee SY , Letts JA , MacKinnon R   Dimeric subunit stoichiometry of the human voltage-dependent proton channel Hv1. PMID 18509058 PMCID 2409406   PROC NAT ACAD SCI USA 2008 JUN 3;105(22):7692-7695
12. Tao X , MacKinnon R   Functional analysis of Kv1.2 and paddle chimera Kv channels in planar lipid bilayers. PMID 18638484   J MOL BIOL 2008 SEP 26;382(1):24-33
13. Banerjee A , MacKinnon R   Inferred motions of the S3a helix during voltage-dependent K+ channel gating. PMID 18632115   J MOL BIOL 2008 SEP 5;381(3):569-580
14. Lockless SW , Zhou M , MacKinnon R   Structural and thermodynamic properties of selective ion binding in a K+ channel. PMID 17472437 PMCID 1858713   PLOS BIOL 2007 MAY;5(5):1079-1088
15. Nishida M , Cadene M , Chait BT , MacKinnon R   Crystal structure of a Kir3.1-prokaryotic Kir channel chimera. PMID 17703190 PMCID 1994128   EMBO J 2007 SEP 5;26(17):4005-4015
16. Long SB , Tao X , Campbell EB , MacKinnon R   Atomic structure of a voltage-dependent K+ channel in a lipid membrane-like environment. PMID 18004376   NATURE 2007 NOV 15;450(7168):376-NIL_3
17. Vaiiyaveetil FI , Sekedat M , Leonetti M , Mackinnon R , Muir TW   The ins and outs of K+ channels revealed through synthesis.   BIOPOLYMERS 2007;88(4):525
18. Schmidt D , Jiang QX , MacKinnon R   Phospholipids and the origin of cationic gating charges in voltage sensors. PMID 17136096   NATURE 2006 DEC 7;444(7120):775-779
19. Valiyaveetil FI , Leonetti M , Muir TW , MacKinnon R   Ion selectivity in a semisynthetic K+ channel locked in the conductive conformation. PMID 17095703   SCIENCE 2006 NOV 10;314(5801):1004-1007
20. Valiyaveetil FI , Sekedat M , MacKinnon R , Muir TW   Structural and functional consequences of an amide-to-ester substitution in the selectivity filter of a potassium channel. PMID 16939283 PMCID 2546570   J AM CHEM SOC 2006 SEP 6;128(35):11591-11599
21. Ruta V , Chen JY , MacKinnon R   Calibrated measurement of gating-charge arginine displacement in the KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channel.   CELL 2005 NOV 4;123(3):463-475
22. Long SB , Campbell EB , MacKinnon R   Crystal structure of a mammalian voltage-dependent Shaker family K+ channel.   SCIENCE 2005 AUG 5;309(5736):897-903
23. Gouaux E , MacKinnon R   Principles of selective ion transport in channels and pumps. PMID 16322449   SCIENCE 2005 DEC 2;310(5753):1461-1465
24. Lee SY , Lee A , Chen JY , MacKinnon R   Structure of the KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channel and its dependence on the lipid membrane. PMID 16223877 PMCID 1253646   PROC NAT ACAD SCI USA 2005 OCT 25;102(43):15441-15446
25. Long SB , Campbell EB , MacKinnon R   Voltage sensor of kv1.2: Structural basis of electromechanical coupling. PMID 16002579   SCIENCE 2005 AUG 5;309(5736):903-908
26. Ohndorf UM , MacKinnon R   Construction of a cyclic nucleotide-gated KcsA K+ channel.   J MOL BIOL 2005 JUL 29;350(5):857-865
27. MacKinnon R   Membrane protein insertion and stability.   SCIENCE 2005 MAR 4;307(5714):1425-1426
28. Sekedat M , Valiyaveetil F , MacKinnon R , Muir TW   The semisynthesis of the potassium channel KcsA.   PEPTIDE REVOLUTION: GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS & THERAPEUTICS 2004; 276-277
29. Valiyaveetil FI , Sekedat M , MacKinnon R , Muir TW   Glycine as a D-amino acid surrogate in the K+-selectivity filter.   PROC NAT ACAD SCI USA 2004 DEC 7;101(49):17045-17049
30. MacKinnon R   Potassium channels and the atomic basis of selective ion conduction (Nobel Lecture).   Les Prix Nobel 2004
31. Ruta V, MacKinnon R   Localization of the voltage-sensor toxin receptor on KvAP.   BIOCHEMISTRY-USA 2004 AUG 10;43(31):10071-10079
32. Zhou Y, MacKinnon R   Ion binding affinity in the cavity of the KcsA potassium channel.   BIOCHEMISTRY-USA 2004 MAY 4;43(17):4978-4982
33. Valiyaveetil FI, Sekedat M, Muir TW, MacKinnon R   Semisynthesis of a functional K+ channel.   ANGEW CHEM INT ED 2004;43(19):2504-2507
34. Jiang QX, Wang DN, MacKinnon R   Electron microscopic analysis of KvAP voltage-dependent K+ channels in an open conformation.   NATURE 2004 AUG 12;430(7001):806-810
35. Zhou M, MacKinnon R   A mutant KcsA K+ channel with altered conduction properties and selectivity filter ion distribution.   J MOL BIOL 2004 MAY 7;338(4):839-846
36. Lee SY, MacKinnon R   A membrane-access mechanism of ion channel inhibition by voltage sensor toxins from spider venom.   NATURE 2004 JUL 8;430(6996):232-235
37. Ruta V, Jiang YX, Lee A, Chen JY, MacKinnon R   Functional analysis of an archaebacterial voltage-dependent K+ channel.   NATURE 2003 MAR 13;422(6928):180-185
38. Dutzler R, Campbell EB, MacKinnon R   Gating the selectivity filter in ClC chloride channels.   SCIENCE 2003 APR 4;300(5616):108-112
39. Jiang YX, Lee A, Chen JY, Ruta V, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R   X-ray structure of a voltage-dependent K+ channel.   NATURE 2003 MAY 1;423(6935):33-41
40. Jiang YX, Ruta V, Chen JY, Lee A, MacKinnon R   The principle of gating charge movement in a voltage-dependent K+ channel.   NATURE 2003 MAY 1;423(6935):42-48
41. MacKinnon R   Potassium channels.   FEBS LETT 2003 NOV 27;555(1):62-65
42. Sekedat M, Valiyaveetil F, MacKinnon R, Muir TW   Semisynthesis of the potassium channel KcsA.   BIOPOLYMERS 2003;71(3):364-365
43. Zhou YF, MacKinnon R   The occupancy of ions in the K+ selectivity filter: Charge balance and coupling of ion binding to a protein conformational change underlie high conduction rates.   J MOL BIOL 2003 NOV 7;333(5):965-975
44. Nishida M, MacKinnon R   Structural basis of inward rectification: Cytoplasmic pore of the G protein-gated inward rectifier GIRK1 at 1.8 Angstrom resolution.   CELL 2002 DEC 27;111(7):957-965
45. Jiang YX, Lee A, Chen JY, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R   Crystal structure and mechanism of a calcium-gated potassium channel.   NATURE 2002 MAY 30;417(6888):515-522
46. Dutzler R, Campbell EB, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R   X-ray structure of a ClC chloride channel at 3.0 Å reveals the molecular basis of anion selectivity.   NATURE 2002 JAN 17;415(6869):287-294
47. Yifrach O, MacKinnon R   Energetics of pore opening in a voltage-gated K+ channel.   CELL 2002 OCT 18;111(2):231-239
48. Jiang YX, Lee A, Chen JY, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R   The open pore conformation of potassium channels.   NATURE 2002 MAY 30;417(6888):523-526
49. Valiyaveetil FI, Zhou YF, Mackinnon R   Lipids in the structure, folding, and function of the KcsA K+ channel.   BIOCHEMISTRY-USA 2002 SEP 3;41(35):10771-10777
50. Valiyaveetil FI, MacKinnon R, Muir TW   Semisynthesis and folding of the potassium channel KcsA.   J AM CHEM SOC 2002 AUG 7;124(31):9113-9120
51. Zhou M, Morais-Cabral JH, Mann S, MacKinnon R   Potassium channel receptor site for the inactivation gate and quaternary amine inhibitors.   NATURE 2001 JUN;411(6838):657-661
52. Jiang YX, Pico A, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R   Structure of the RCK domain from the E. coli K+ channel and demonstration of its presence in the human BK channel.   NEURON 2001 MAR;29(3):593-601
53. Zhou Y, Morais-Cabral JH, Kaufman A, MacKinnon R   Chemistry of ion coordination and hydration revealed by a K+ channel-Fab complex at 2.0 Angstrom resolution.   NATURE 2001;414: 43-48
54. Morais-Cabral JH, Zhou YF, MacKinnon R   Energetic optimization of ion conduction rate by the K+ selectivity filter.   NATURE 2001 NOV 01;414(6859):37-42
55. Imredy JP, MacKinnon R   Energetic and Strucutral Interactions Between d-Dendrotoxin and voltage-gated Potassium Channel.   J MOL BIOL 2000 MAR 10;296(5):1283-1294
56. Gulbis JM, Zhou M, Mann S, MacKinnon R   Structure of the cytoplasmic beta subunit-T1 assembly of voltage-dependent K+ channels.   SCIENCE 2000 JUL 7;289(5476):123-127
57. Youxing J, MacKinnon R   The Barium Site in a Potassium Channel by X-Ray Crystallography.   J GEN PHYSIOL 2000 MAR;115(3):269-272
58. Gulbis JM, Mann S, MacKinnon R   Structure of a voltage-dependent K+ channel b subunit.   CELL 1999 JUN 25;97(7):943-952
59. Roux B, MacKinnon R   Role of the Cavity and Pore Helices in the KcsA K+ Channel: Electrostatic-Based Mechanism for the Stabilization and Selectivity of Monovalent Cations.   SCIENCE 1999 JUL 2;285(5424):100-2
60. Morrill JA, MacKinnon R   Isolation of a Single Carboxyl-Carboxylate Proton Binding Site in the Pore of a Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel.   J GEN PHYSIOL 1999 JUL;114(1):71-84
61. Doyle DA, Cabral JM, Pfuetzner RA, Kuo A, Gulbis JM, Cohen SL, Chait BT, MacKinnon R   The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis K+ conduction and selectivity.   SCIENCE 1998 APR;280(5360):69-77
62. Papadopoulos EB, Carabasi MH, Castro-Malaspina H, Childs BH, Mackinnon S, Boulad F, Gillio AP, Kernan NA, Small TN, Szabolcs P, Taylor J, Yahalom J, Collins NH, Bleau SA, Black PM, Heller G, O’Reilly RJ, Young JW   T-cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as postremission therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia: Freedom from relapse in the absence of graft-versus-host disease.   BLOOD 1998 FEB;91(3):1083-1090
63. Cabral JHM, Lee A, Cohen SL, Chait BT, Li M, MacKinnon R   Crystal structure and functional analysis of the HERG K+ channel N-terminus: a eukaryotic PAS domain.   CELL 1998 NOV;95(5):649-655
64. MacKinnon R, Cohen SL, Kuo AL, Lee A, Chait BT   Structural conservation in prokaryotic and eukaryotic potassium channels.   SCIENCE 1998 APR;280(5360):106-109
65. Imredy JP, Chen CF, MacKinnon R   A snake toxin inhibitor of inward rectifier potassium channel ROMK1.   BIOCHEMISTRY-USA 1998 OCT;37(42):14867-14874
66. Lu Z, MacKinnon R   Purification, characterization, and synthesis of an inward-rectifier K+ channel inhibitor from scorpion venom.   BIOCHEMISTRY-USA 1997 JUN;36(23):6936-6940
67. Swartz KJ, MacKinnon R   Hanatoxin modifies the gating of a voltage-dependent K+ channel through multiple binding sites.   NEURON 1997 APR;18(4):665-673
68. Swartz KJ, MacKinnon R   Mapping the receptor site for Hanatoxin, a gating modifier of voltage-dependent K+ channels.   NEURON 1997 APR;18(4):675-682
69. Gross A, MacKinnon R   Agitoxin footprinting the Shaker potassium channel pore   NEURON 1996 16: 399-406
70. Aggarwal SK, MacKinnon R   Contribution of the S4 segment to gating charge in the Shaker potassium channel.   NEURON 1996 16: 1169-1177
71. Ranganathan R, Lewis J, MacKinnon R   Spatial localization of the K+ channel selectivity filter by mutant cycle-based structure analysis.   NEURON 1996 16: 131-139
72. Doyle DA, Lee A, Lewis J, Kim E, Sheng M, MacKinnon R   Crystal structures of a complexed and peptide-free membrane protein-binding domain: molecular basis of peptide recognition by PDZ.   Cell 1996;85(7):1067-1076
73. Swartz KJ, MacKinnon R   An inhibitor of the Kv2.1 potassium channel isolated from the venom of a Chilean tarantula.   Neuron 1995 Oct;15(4):941-949
74. Lu Z, MacKinnon R   Probing a potassium channel pore with an engineered protonatable site.   Biochemistry 1995 Oct 10;34(40):13133-13138
75. Park C-S, MacKinnon R   Divalent cation selectivity in a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel.   Biochemistry 1995 Oct 17;34(41):13328-13333
76. Hidalgo P, MacKinnon R   Revealing the architecture of a K+ channel pore through mutant cycles with a peptide inhibitor.   Science 1995 Apr 14;268(5208):307-310
77. Krezel AM, Khasibhatla C, Hidalgo P, MacKinnon R, Wagner G   Solution structure of the K+ channel inhibitor agitoxin 2: Caliper for probing channel geometry.   Protein Sci 1995 Aug;4(8):1478-1489
78. MacKinnon R, Aldrich RW, Lee AW   Functional stoichiometry of Shaker potassium channel inactivation.   Science 1993 Oct 29;262(5134):757-759
79. MacKinnon R   Determination of the subunit stoichiometry of a voltage-activated potassium channel.   Nature 1991 Mar 21;350(6315):232-235

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    Professor of Molecular Neurobiology and Biophysics at Rockefeller University